Decker: A Multimedia Sketchpad

Decker is a multimedia platform for creating and sharing interactive documents, with sound, images, hypertext, and scripted behavior. It draws strong influence from HyperCard, as well as more modern codeless or “low-code” creative tools like Twine and Bitsy. If Jupyter Notebooks are a digital lab notebook, think of Decker as a stack of sticky notes for spatially organizing your thoughts and making quick prototypes.

The Basics

Decker organizes information on Cards. Think of them like a paper index card you can draw on:

A collection of these cards is called a Deck. Each card contains different information, organized however you like. You see the topmost card in the deck, and you can flip to a different card at any time.

Decker cards can have Widgets; interactive elements like buttons:

There are six types of widget in Decker:

Widgets are useful out of the box, but writing scripts makes them much more powerful.

Using Decker

Decker always shows a menu bar across the top of the window. Most menus remain consistent, but some menus will appear or disappear contextually. Menu items showing a caret and a letter to the right (like ^q) have a keyboard shortcut. Either “control” (PCs) or “command” (Macs) combined with this letter can be used to activate any such shortcut.

In most modal dialogs, the “escape” key will cancel or otherwise exit.

In order, the main menus are:

If you’re exploring an existing deck, you will usually want to have the Interact tool chosen, which allows you to click buttons and edit grids or fields. Widgets only produce events and execute scripts with this tool active.

With the Interact tool chosen, pressing the left and right cursor keys will cycle between cards in the deck, as shortcuts for using Card → Go To Previous and Card → Go To Next. Pressing tab or shift-tab will cycle forward or backward, respectively, between widgets on the current card. Pressing space or return with a button highlighted will have the same effect as clicking it. Fields and grids will offer additional menu options if they are selected.

With the Widgets tool chosen, you can reposition and resize widgets, and create new widgets or modify their properties via options in the Widgets menu. Click a widget to select it, or drag out a rectangle to select multiple widgets. Holding shift while clicking widgets will toggle their selection. Dragging selected widgets or will reposition them. You can also use the cursor keys to move selected widgets a single pixel at a time, or, in combination with shift, in grid steps. With a single widget selected, you can adjust its size with drag handles. With widgets selected, you can use the bracket keys ([ and ]) to bring objects forward or push them backward in drawing order.

All of other tools relate to drawing on the card:

The F-keys on your keyboard are another way to switch between tools: F1 for Interact, F2 for Widgets, F3 for Select, and so on up to F12. Note that your operating system may reserve or overload some F-keys!

The View menu will be available when the Widgets or drawing tools are chosen:

The Style menu will be available whenever drawing tools are chosen:

A number of shortcuts are available with any of the drawing tools selected:

You can drag and drop files directly onto the Decker window, and it will take an appropriate action depending on the type of the file:

The Decker menu allows you to turn on “Touch Input”, which modifies several aspects of the user interface to be more suitable for use on touch- or pen-based devices which may not have a physical keyboard:

Decker automatically enables touch mode the first time it observes a touch event.

The Decker → Toolbars menu item toggles the visibility of toolbars on the left and right edges of the display or window- use these interchangably with the Tool and Style menus. Or don’t!

Web-Decker and Native-Decker

Decker is available as a native application for MacOS, Linux, and Windows. If you save a deck with a .html extension, Decker produces a document that can be opened directly in a web browser- a self-contained “standalone deck”. This web-based version of Decker can be referred to as “Web-Decker”.

Web-Decker has generally the same tools and functionality as Native-Decker, but the constraints of running in a web browser require many small changes. Most importantly:

In a nutshell, Web-Decker provides an excellent way to share your decks with other people, and a convenient way to play with Decker when you’re unable or unwilling to install the native application. If you’re making new decks, Native-Decker’s saving functionality and keyboard shortcuts may provide a better experience. You can use both however you please- a deck is a deck!

The Widgets

Let’s take a look at each of Decker’s widgets in detail.


Buttons are widgets that make something happen. They can have a variety of appearances:

Double-clicking a newly created widget with the widgets tool, pressing space/enter, or choosing Widgets → Properties… will open the property dialog for that widget. Every widget has its own property dialog for tuning relevant parameters.

In this dialog, the “name” of the widget is an internal identifier used by scripts for referring to the button. Giving your widgets meaningful names will make scripting a lot easier. Every widget type has a “name” property.

If you set a “shortcut” for a button (which may be a lowercase letter, a digit, or space), pressing and releasing that key on the keyboard will behave the same as clicking the button.

Clicking “Action…” brings up a special dialog that can help you give buttons behavior when you click on them:

You can navigate to another card (relative to the current card or absolute), optionally with a transition animation, you can play a sound (perhaps recorded from your microphone or imported from an external file), or you can do both!

When you’re finished, click “OK”, and your button is ready to use with the interact tool. The “Action” dialog has written a script for you automatically, but you can see what it looks like by going back to the button properties dialog and clicking “Script…”.

The script editor is another feature that is common to every widget type. When you open a blank script, a template will be automatically populated for you with various on ... end event handlers that can be filled in with whatever behavior you’d like. See events for more information. When you’re finished viewing or editing a script, close it with File → Close Script or press escape. If your script has any syntax errors, you will be prompted to correct them or discard your changes.

You can also edit scripts for the card itself from the card properties dialog or Card → Script….

If you enable “X-Ray Specs”, you can see a simplified diagram of all the widgets on your card underneath the script. With X-Ray Specs on, holding Control or Command while clicking on a widget will switch to editing that widget’s script, and clicking outside all widgets will switch to editing the card script.


Fields store text. They’re useful both as labels for items on a card and as a place for users to enter text.

Like buttons, you can configure most of the settings for a field from its property dialog:

To modify the text in a field, use the interact tool and click inside to give it focus. Fields will supply an appropriate “Text” menu with extra editing commands when they’re focused.

To make a field that a user isn’t meant to modify, select the field with the widgets tool and lock it with Widgets → Locked.

Rich text hyperlinks are only “clickable” when their field is locked. With scripting, a link can do anything a button can do when it’s clicked, but by default if you use the name of a card as the link value, clicking the link will navigate to that card. If you use a URL, clicking the link will have Decker prompt you to open the URL in a web browser.


Sliders store numbers. They have a configurable minimum and maximum value (inclusive), and a step size representing the smallest amount by which the slider can be changed. Like buttons, sliders come in several styles:

The “Bar” and “Compact” slider styles display the value as text, using a “format” string corresponding to the format primitive in the Lil programming language. Here are a few examples of format strings which might be useful:


Grids store tabular data.

Grids can be drawn with or without column headers, with or without a scrollbar, and with or without grid lines. The “format” string is a sequence of characters which each control how values in one column will be displayed. The characters correspond to codes used by the format primitive in the Lil programming language, but take no parameters. The most useful are as follows:

Additionally, grids support a few special format codes:

Numeric columns (format types fcCihH) are displayed right-aligned, and all other columns are displayed left-aligned.

For example, a grid containing a table with four columns given the format string sfL would display the first column as strings (s), the second column as floating-point numbers (f), the third column as a “locked” string column that cannot be edited (L), and since the fourth column does not have a format character specified it would implicitly be formatted as a string column.

The grid properties dialog displays the contents of the grid’s table encoded as JSON or CSV, and allows it to be edited directly. In JSON mode, tables will initially be shown as an object containing columns as lists (as given by the Lil cols operator), but the dialog also accepts a list of objects or a list of lists (as accepted by the Lil table operator). In CSV mode, the table will be parsed and displayed based on the table’s format string, if any. Switching modes will parse the table under the current representation and then re-format in the new representation.

In interact mode, you can select a particular row by clicking on it. If the grid is unlocked, you can additionally sort columns by clicking a header or edit a specific cell’s value by double-clicking it. The user’s input will be parsed based on the column’s format type, if any. Double-clicking a boolean column (formatted as b or B) will directly toggle the value. Double-clicking a column formatted as L or I will have no effect. If the grid has headers and more than one column is displayed, you can drag the space between column headings to resize the columns. By default, every column is given equal horizontal space. You can restore default spacing by clicking “Reset Widths” in the grid properties dialog.

The File menu offers options for importing or exporting Comma Separated Value (CSV) data, respecting the grid’s format string, when a grid is selected.

Additionally, you can use the Edit → Query dialog to issue Lil queries against the contents of the grid, preview results, and update the grid if desired:

The query dialog is like a simpler, task-specific version of the listener: type a Lil query, press shift+return or “Run” to execute it. The variable me.value references the data that is currently stored in the selected grid. Clicking “Apply” will store the results of your query in the grid.

You can use queries to filter down results:

select where amount>1 from me.value

Compute new columns:

update cost:price*amount from me.value

Make new tables from scratch:

	name:  "Alice","Bob","Charlie"
	age:   23,25,17
	hobby: "cryptography","espionage","birdwatching"
into 0

Or a whole lot more! See the Lil scripting language for details. The query script is executed exactly as if it were an event handler triggered on the selected grid widget.


A canvas is a rectangular widget that contains graphics. Canvases don’t do very much on their own, or have much of an appearance on their own, but are very powerful in combination with scripts. See the canvas interface section for detail.

All widgets can be “shown” in one of four ways, configurable with the Widgets menu: None, Solid, Transparent, or Inverted.

The canvas widget has a special behavior for Show Invert: instead of being drawn in black-on-white, the pixels of the canvas will invert the color of anything beneath them as by the Exclusive-OR (XOR) logical operation. Contraptions are similar: their background image is drawn like a canvas, and then any widgets that are part of the contraption are drawn on top, respecting their own internal show properties.

(Keep in mind that a “Show None” widget is not the same thing as an “Invisible” button- invisible buttons are shown and interactive, they just don’t look like anything!)

If you have an image in the clipboard, you can make a new canvas based on it by using Edit → Paste as new Canvas. This makes it easy to create “paper cutouts” that conceal part of a card and are hidden or revealed by scripts. You can likewise copy the image from a selected canvas to the clipboard to manipulate elsewhere with the drawing tools.

By default, if a canvas is unlocked, clicking and dragging on a canvas will allow the user to draw lines on it.


A contraption is a “custom widget”, built from simpler widgets, and defined in a Prototype. Contraptions can have almost any appearance, and may exhibit complex behaviors. Anywhere you have repetitive structure in a deck- like standardized forms, title cards in a presentation, or a heads-up-display for a game- you could use a contraption. Explore other people’s decks; they might contain interesting contraptions you can use in your own creations!

See the Custom Widgets section for details on how to build and modify your own contraptions.


The cards dialog can be found in File → Cards…, and provides an overview of the cards that make up the deck:

Clicking a card in the list will navigate to it immediately, and double-clicking will drill into its properties, allowing you to edit the card’s name or script. You can also drag cards in the list or press shift and arrow keys together to reorder them.


Buttons and scripts can play sound using the play[] built-in function. Several sounds can play at the same time. Sound is always stored at an 8khz sample rate, in mono, and individual sounds are capped at 10 seconds.

The sounds stored in the current deck can be listed with File → Sounds…

Double-clicking an item in this list will play a preview. Creating a new sound or editing an existing one will open the audio editor:

Dragging on the audio waveform will make a selection, which can then be cut, copied, cropped or cleared. Audio in the clipboard can be pasted, replacing the current selection. With a selection active, pressing “Play” will only play the selected region of the waveform.


The Font/Deck Accessory mover is for transferring resources between decks. You can open it with File → Resources… or simply dragging and dropping the source deck onto the Decker window.

On the left is a list of resources in the source deck, and on the right is a list of the resources in the open deck. With a resource on the left selected, you can copy it into the open deck, and with a resource on the right selected you can delete it from the open deck. Selecting any resource will display a preview. Press “OK” or escape when you’re finished.

Resources consist of:

The Listener

The Listener is a flexible tool for debugging scripts and performing bulk edits to a deck. You can toggle it with Decker → Listener. It appears as a small text box on the bottom edge of the display, with a scrolling command history:

Type a Lil statement, such as card.widgets, and press shift+return or choose Listener → Evaluate from the menu. Your input will appear left-justified, and the response from the Lil interpreter will appear right-justified beneath it. This sort of question-and-answer interaction with a programming language is sometimes called a Read-Evaluate-Print Loop (REPL). You can click on text you’ve entered previously in the command history to paste it into the text box.

The Listener automatically has access to a number of variables as context, depending on what you’re doing when it is opened. The variable me will be bound as a target:

The expressions you enter will be evaluated as if they were a suffix to the script of the target: they have access to deck, card, and any functions and variables defined in the target’s script. As demonstrated in the examples above, the name _ will be automatically bound to the value of the preceding expression, allowing you to chain together several step-by-step operations. You can view the contents of _ as well as any local variables you’ve bound in the current Listener session by using the Listener → Show Locals menu item.

If you are using the widget tool, the variable selected will contain a list of widget interfaces that are currently selected, allowing you to use code to manipulate parts of the deck programmatically. Consider, for example, re-titling the buttons in a selection with ascending numerals:

each b k i in selected

While the listener is open, the name of every widget is drawn above it, for an easy at-a-glance reference. You can also enable these labels while using the widget tool with Widgets → Widget Names.

The built-in functions show[] and print[] can be used to log information to the Listener for later review. The panic[] function is like show[], but it immediately halts any executing script and opens the Listener. The first argument to panic[], if any, will be stashed in _, just like the result of an expression typed interactively; this mechanism can be used to retrieve any desired context from the panic[]ed scope.


A small amount of code can go a long way in Decker. Widgets, cards, and the deck itself can be given a script. Certain interactions with the deck, like clicking a button or altering a field, will trigger events. A script can define functions to respond to events and make something happen, like computing a value to place in a field, navigating to a different card, or drawing a plot on a canvas. Scripts are written in the Lil programming language. Consult the Lil manual for details.

As a motivating example, consider a card containing a button and a field named display. The button has a script like:

on click do
	display.text: 3*display.text

Clicking the button will trigger a click event. Since this script defines a function named click, it will have an opportunity to respond to that event. It accesses the text in display (which is available as a variable by name), multiplies it by three, and stores the result in the original field. Clicking the button several times in succession will repeat this action.

The most important thing to understand about Decker’s scripting model is that scripts are stateless. When an event fires, scripts are invoked, and may manipulate both the deck and their own local or global variables as desired while running. However, only changes to the deck itself will be persistent; Lil variables will always be reset to a known configuration when the next event fires.

Any data that needs to be preserved between events must be stored in widgets. Use widgets as an embodied data model: a visible, manipulable representation of your application’s state. For example, fields can store plain or rich text (or arbitrary data encoded as XML or JSON), grids can store tabular or associative data, a canvas is a natural way to store an image, and a checkbox button is a natural way to store a boolean value. By avoiding “hidden” state, Decker avoids surprises and data loss when editing or saving a deck and its scripts. If an application needs state that cannot be displayed to a user for some reason (like the answer to a guessing game), you can make invisible widgets, or place widgets on a out-of-the-way card.

Built-In Functions

Decker provides a number of useful pre-defined functions:

Name Description Purpose
show[x...] Print a human-comprehensible representation of the value x to the Listener, and return x. Listener
panic[x...] Print a human-comprehensible representation of the value x to the Listener, and immediately halt the executing script. Listener
print[x...] Display a string x in the Listener. (1) Listener
play[x mode] Play a sound. x can be either the name of a sound or a sound interface. (2) Decker
go[x y z] Navigate to another card by name, value, or index x with transition y, playing for z frames (3). Decker
transition[x] Install a transition x for use with go[], and return a dictionary of installed transitions. Decker
brush[x y] Install a brush x for use with canvas.brush, and return a dictionary of installed brushes. Decker
sleep[x] Wait for x 60hz frames before proceeding, minimum 1 frame. Allows for performing simple animation. (4) Decker
array[x y] Create a new Array Interface with size x and cast string y, or decode an array string x. System
image[x] Create a new Image Interface with size x ((width,height)), or decode an image string. System
sound[x] Create a new Sound Interface with a size or list of samples x, or decode a sound string. System
eval[x y z] Parse and execute a string x as a Lil program, using any variable bindings in dictionary y. (5) System
random[x y] Choose y random elements from x. (6) System
readcsv[x y d] Turn a RFC-4180 CSV string x into a Lil table with column spec y.(7) Data
writecsv[x y d] Turn a Lil table x into a CSV string with column spec y.(7) Data
readxml[x] Turn a useful subset of XML/HTML into a Lil structure.(8) Data
writexml[x] Turn a Lil structure x into an indented XML string.(9) Data
alert[text type x y] Open a modal dialog with the string or rtext text, and potentially prompt for input.(10) Modal
read[type hint] Open a modal dialog prompting the user to open a document, and return its contents (or "").(11) Modal
write[x] Open a modal dialog prompting the user to save x. Returns 1 if the file was saved successfully, 0 otherwise.(12) Modal

1) if print[] is provided more than one argument, the first argument will be interpreted as a format string, and each remaining argument will be treated as an element of a list of right arguments to format. The resulting string will then be printed on its own line. For example, print["%s, %i" "first" 2] is equivalent to print["%s, %i" format ("first",2)].

2) if the second argument of play[] is the string "loop", this function controls a “background” sound which will repeat indefinitely until it is stopped. Only one background sound can play at a time. If the first argument is the background sound that is already playing, this function will have no effect; the loop will continue unaffected. If the first argument is not a sound or a string giving the name of a sound, the background sound will be stopped. To summarize:

3) If the target of go[] is a number, move to that card by index, counting from 0. If it is an instance of the card interface, navigate to the indicated card. If it is a string, it is either a special string or the name of a card. An invalid card name will cause no navigation. The special string Next moves to the next card (wrapping), Prev moves to the previous card (wrapping), First moves to the first card in the deck, Last moves to the last card in the deck, and Back moves to card that was active before the current card (if any), rolling back an internal navigation history. Removing or reordering cards in the deck will invalidate the history used by Back.

If the target of go[] begins with a URI protocol such as http://, https://, ftp://, gopher://, or gemini://, Decker will prompt the user for confirmation and then ask the operating system (or browser) to open an appropriate application (if any) to navigate to that URI. By design, there is no way to determine whether the user confirms, the OS finds an appropriate application, or the destination resouce is retrieved successfully. Opening a URI is strictly a suggestion, for user convenience, and not a means of accessing remote resources from a deck.

The transition y, should be the name of a transition function installed with transition[] (a string), one of the built-in transition animations ("SlideRight", "SlideLeft", "SlideUp", "SlideDown", "WipeRight", "WipeLeft", "WipeUp", "WipeDown", "BoxIn", "BoxOut"), or a Lil function. Any other value will be ignored.

If specified, the transition time z is the number of frames (at 60 frames/second) the transition should take to complete, with a minimum of 1 frames. By default, transitions take 30 frames, or half a second.

4) If sleep[] is provided the string "play" as an argument, instead of waiting for some number of frames to pass, it will pause script execution until all sound clips triggered with play[] complete.

5) eval[x y z] returns a dictionary containing:

By default, code executed within eval[] does not have access to any variables from the caller that are not explicitly passed in via the second argument (y), including global functions and constants, nor can it modify variables of the caller; the code is executed in its own isolated scope. In the following example, we provide our eval[]ed code with the show[] function and a constant:
eval["show[a+3]" d]

If the third argument (z) is truthy, eval[] will instead execute within the caller’s scope, giving it the ability to read (and potentially write) every variable that was in scope at the point where eval[] was called. Use this with caution!

6) The behavior of random[x y] depends on the type of x and whether or not y is provided:

7) Column specs are strings in which each character indicates the type of a CSV column. readcsv[] and writecsv[] will ignore excess columns if more exist in the source data than in the column spec. Missing columns are padded with an appropriate “null”. If the column spec is not a string, these functions will read/write every column in the source data as strings. Any pattern type recognized by parse and format is permitted as a column spec character, but they are interpreted without flags or subsequent delimiters. Additionally, underscore (_) can be used in a column spec to skip a column. If a single-character delimiter d is provided, it is used instead of comma (,) between records.

8) writexml[] will convert anything which is not a dictionary or list into a string with the special characters (",',<,> and &) encoded as XML entities. Lists will be recursively converted and concatenated without inserting extra whitespace. Dictionaries will be interpreted as XML tags with the following keys:

9) readxml[] is a soft, mushy, tolerant parser for a subset of XML which may also be useful for scraping information out of HTML fragments. The result will always be a list of dictionaries and strings, each representing an XML value in the same fashion as writexml[]. All tag names and attribute keys are converted to lowercase during parsing, for consistency. The XML prolog (<?xml ...?>) and extension/templating features (<!...>) are ignored. Entities not listed here- including all numeric entities- are left unchanged. Improperly-nested tags are handled in a best-effort fashion. This parser understands:

10) alert[text type x y] blocks all script execution until the user dismisses the modal. It can prompt the user in several ways depending on the type argument, if provided:

11) read[type hint] understands several types of file and will interpret each appropriately:

The type argument allows you to specify the type of file(s) the user should be allowed to choose:

If a sound file is unreadable (or the user cancels), it will be loaded as a sound with size 0.

There are several possible hint arguments to control the interpretation of colors in an image:

The "frames" or "gray_frames" hints will cause read[] of a GIF to return a dictionary containing the following keys:

If an image contains transparent pixels, they will be read as pattern 0.

12) write[] recognizes several types of Lil value and will serialize each appropriately:


Decker also provides pre-defined constants:

Name Description
sys An instance of the system interface.
app An instance of the app interface.
bits An instance of the bits interface.
rtext An instance of the rtext interface.
pi The ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. Roughly 3.141.
e Euler’s number; the base of the natural logarithm. Roughly 2.718.
colors A dictionary of named pattern indices.

The colors dictionary defines named pattern indices for the default colors { white, black, yellow, orange, red, magenta, purple, blue, cyan, green, darkgreen, brown, tan, lightgray, mediumgray, darkgray }.


Interfaces allow Lil programs to interact with deck resources and mutable data. They behave like opaque dictionaries: values may be accessed by indexing, and interfaces may also be assigned through. The typeof operator may be used to identify what kind of interface is at hand. Keys which expose simple data will be called attributes, and keys which expose functions will be called methods. Fields are read-only except when noted as “r/w” (read/write).

Decker’s interfaces break down into several general categories:

Datatypes Font, Image, Sound, Array
Utilities Bits, System, App, RText, Pointer
Deck Parts Deck, Card, Patterns, Module, KeyStore, Prototype
Widgets Button, Field, Slider, Grid, Canvas, Contraption

When describing methods and values, this document will use some conventions for brevity:

"top_left" "top_center" "top_right"
"center_left" "center" "center_right"
"bottom_left" "bottom_center" "bottom_right"

If an anchor argument is missing or invalid, "top_left" is used as a default.

System Interface

The system interface exposes information about the Lil runtime. It is available as a global constant named sys.

Name Description
typeof x "system"
x.version Decker’s version number as a string in x.y format.
x.platform The host operating system; one of {"mac","unix","win","web","other"}.
x.seed The random[] number generator’s numeric seed.(1)
x.frame An integer that counts up every time a frame is rendered, at 60hz. The current GMT as a Unix epoch. The current time in milliseconds- useful for timing intervals.
x.workspace Dictionary of information about Lil’s runtime memory usage.(2)

1) Assigning to sys.seed will initialize the random number generator behind the random[] function, causing it to produce consistent results thereafter.

2) Workspace statistics can provide some insight into performance, but all values should be taken as approximate- the act of retrieving this information will itself result in several allocations. Lil’s garbage collector only runs periodically, so the number of truly “live” values at any given time may be lower than shown here. The workspace dictionary contains:

App Interface

The app interface exposes control over the Decker application itself. It is available as a global constant named app.

Name Description
typeof x "app"
x.fullscreen Is Decker in fullscreen mode? On write, attempt to switch if possible; may not succeed. (r/w)
x.playing If any audio is currently playing (not counting a background loop), 1. Otherwise, 0.[] Save the current deck, in-place if possible. May prompt the user for a save location.
x.exit[] Immediately close Decker without saving (see[]).

Note that app.exit[] doesn’t do anything in Web-Decker. Exposing a button for closing Decker is very handy in locked decks, but you may want to hide or disable it when sys.platform~"web".

Bits Interface

The bits interface exposes utility routines for efficient bit-wise manipulation of 32-bit integers. It is available as a global constant named bits.

Name Description
typeof x "bits"
x.or[x...] Calculate the bit-wise OR of two or more numbers or lists of numbers.
x.and[x...] Calculate the bit-wise AND of two or more numbers or lists of numbers.
x.xor[x...] Calculate the bit-wise XOR of two or more numbers or lists of numbers.

The bits.and[], bits.or[] and bits.xor[] functions conform scalar and vector arguments like Lil’s built in arithmetic operators:

bits.and[3 (range 8)]    # (0,1,2,3,0,1,2,3)
         4%(range 8)     # (0,1,2,3,0,1,2,3)

If these functions are called with more than two arguments, each argument will be successively reduced together. The following are equivalent:

bits.or[8 4 1]           # 13
bits.or[bits.or[8 4] 1]  # 13

If they are called with a single argument, it will likewise be reduced:

bits.or[(8,4,1)]         # 13

Note that scalar-vector bits.xor[] can be used to perform a bit-wise NOT:

bits.xor[255 (range 8)]  # (255,254,253,252,251,250,249,248)

RText Interface

Rich text is a series of “runs” of text, each with its own formatting. Runs may contain a hyperlink or even an inline image. The field widget, alert[], and canvas drawing functions understand rich text in addition to plain strings.

Rich text is represented as a table with columns text, font, and arg. The text column contains the text to draw for each run. The font column contains the name of the font for each run. If a font cell is not the name of a valid font, the run will use a default font instead. The arg column determines how each run will be drawn:

The rtext interface contains a number of helper routines for building and manipulating rtext tables. It is available as a global constant named rtext.

Name Description
typeof rtext "rtext"
rtext.end The end position of any rtext table.
rtext.make[text font arg] Make a new single-row rtext table from text. font and arg are optional.
rtext.len[table] The number of character positions in the text content of table.
rtext.get[table x] The row number of table containing character position x, or -1.
rtext.string[table (x,y)] The text content of table between character positions x and y.
rtext.span[table (x,y)] An rtext subtable containing content between character positions x and y.[x...] Concatenate rtext tables sequentially. Accepts any number of arguments.

Dictionary arguments to[] are promoted to tables, and any other arguments which are not already tables will be interpreted as strings and converted to text runs as by rtext.make[x "" ""]. Thus, with a single argument,[] can be used to cast values to properly formed rtext tables. Sequential rows with matching font and (non-image) arg values will be coalesced together, and rows with empty text spans will be dropped.

To measure the on-screen dimensions of an rtext, see canvas.textsize[].

Pointer Interface

The pointer interface represents the global state of the user’s pointing device, such as a mouse, pen, or touchscreen. It is available as a global constant named pointer. Its attributes will update live at 60hz, even if a script is running. The coordinates of the pointer are always in “screen space”; pixels relative to the top-left corner of the card. If you want to compare pointer coordinates to the position of a widget, you should use widget.offset rather than widget.pos, to properly reflect the screen coordinates of widgets nested within contraptions or prototypes.

Name Description
typeof x "pointer"
x.held Bool. Is the pointing device held down?
x.pos The pos of the pointing device on the current card.
x.prev The value of x.pos before the most recent update.
x.start The pos where the pointing device was last pressed down.
x.end The pos where the pointing device was last released.

Deck Interface

The deck interface represents the global attributes of a Decker document. The open deck is available to Decker as a global constant named deck.

Name Description
typeof x "deck"
x.version Number. The version of the deck file format.
x.locked Bool. Is this deck locked (editing and drawing mode disabled)? r/w. String. A descriptive title for the deck. r/w. String. The name of the author of the deck. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the deck’s script, or "". r/w.
x.patterns An instance of the patterns interface.
x.sounds A dictionary of sound interfaces stored in this deck, keyed by name.
x.fonts A dictionary of font interfaces stored in this deck, keyed by name. A dictionary of card interfaces stored in this deck, keyed by name.
x.card The current card. Writing this attribute behaves the same as calling go[x].
x.add[x y z] Add a resource to this deck, and return it.
x.remove[x] Remove a resource from this deck. Returns 1 on success.
x.copy[card] Save a card and its contents as an opaque string starting with %%CRD0.
x.paste[text] Append a card and its contents from a %%CRD0 string to this deck, returning the new card.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this deck with argument(s) x.

deck.add[x y z] can add new cards, sounds, modules, prototypes and fonts to the deck:

deck.remove[x] will conversely remove existing cards, sounds, modules, prototypes or fonts from the deck. The argument x must be an interface value. The built-in fonts may not be removed from a deck. Removing a font will adjust any existing widgets which use it as their font attribute with the built-in “body” font. Decks will always have at least one card; attempting to remove the final card will have no effect. When a card is removed from its deck, the interface becomes inert: it will ignore all reads and writes of attributes.

Patterns Interface

The patterns interface stores a global palette and set of 1-bit textures used by Decker itself, as well as the canvas widget. The open deck’s patterns interface is available to Decker as a global constant named patterns. Any pattern aside from 0 (transparent) and 1 (solid black) may be altered on the fly. There are names for each of the default color slots starting at 32 in the global colors constant. The animated patterns (28, 29, 30 and 31) automatically cycle between their indices at 15hz.

Name Description
typeof x "patterns"
x[2-27] An 8x8 image interface comprised of patterns 0 and 1. r/w.
x[28-31] A list of up to 8 pattern indices for animated patterns. r/w.
x[32-47] A 24-bit RRGGBB color represented as an int. r/w.

The default patterns and colors are as follows:

The following example overrides one of each type of palette entry:

patterns[12]:image["%%IMG0AAgACH6BpaWBmcN+"]    # a custom pattern from an image
patterns[28]:35,36,37,38,37,36                  # a sequence of pattern indices
patterns[38]:"%h" parse "FFDAB9"                # a hex-encoded 24-bit RGB color (peachpuff)

Array Interface

Arrays are dynamically created interfaces, each representing a mutable buffer of bytes that can be interpreted as a variety of machine-oriented integer casts. The array[] built-in function can be used to make a new array from scratch. Arrays are suitable for representing and manipulating binary files or as temporary storage when Lil’s immutable collections are ill-suited to the task at hand.

a:array[4 "u8"] # make a new unsigned byte array of size 4
a[0,4]:65       # spread assignment of 65 to 4 bytes, starting at index 0
a.cast:"char"   # change interpretation of array to characters
a[0,4]          # read 4 characters, starting at index 0: "AAAA"

Every array has a cast which controls how it is interpreted: signed or unsigned, 8-, 16- or 32-bit, and big- or little-endian packing, where appropriate:

Cast Range Description
"u8" [0, 255] unsigned 8-bit int
"i8" [-128, 127] signed 8-bit int
"u16b" [0, 65535] unsigned 16-bit int, big-endian
"u16l" [0, 65535] unsigned 16-bit int, little-endian
"i16b" [-32768, 32767] signed 16-bit int, big-endian
"i16l" [-32768, 32767] signed 16-bit int, little-endian
"u32b" [0, 4294967295] unsigned 32-bit int, big-endian
"u32l" [0, 4294967295] unsigned 32-bit int, little-endian
"i32b" [-2147483648, 2147483647] signed 32-bit int, big-endian
"i32l" [-2147483648, 2147483647] signed 32-bit int, little-endian
"char" n/a ASCII character

While arrays do not benefit from the full range of operators Lil can bring to bear on lists and numbers, the array interface provides a number of useful methods for reading and writing data, including ways to perform efficient fills and copies.

Name Description
typeof x "array"
x.encoded The content of this array (and its cast) losslessly encoded as an opaque string, suitable for decoding with array[].
x.cast A string indicating the interpretation of the content of this array. r/w.
x.size The number of elements in this array, respecting the cast. r/w, unless the array is a slice (see below). An integer count of bytes from the beginning of this array used by x.struct[]. r/w.
x[offset] Read one or more values, respecting the cast.
x[offset]:y Write one or more values y, respecting the cast.
x.slice[offset cast] Create a lightweight view of a subset of this array, potentially with a different cast.
x.copy [offset cast] Create a new, distinct array by copying a subset of this array, potentially with a different cast.
x.struct[shape x] Read or write structured values starting at here and post-incrementing here based on shape.[x...] Append one or more numbers, strings, lists, or arrays to this array, starting at and post-incrementing here.

Several parts of the array interface take an offset argument. An offset may be either a single number (an index from the beginning of the array), or a pair of numbers (an index from the beginning of the array and a length). A single index refers to reading or writing a single value, whereas an index and length refer to reading or writing multiple values. For reads, multiple numbers will be read as a list, and any number of chars will be read as a Lil string. For writes, any sort of listy value (list, string, or array) will be truncated or padded with 0 to fit the specified length, and a single number will be replicated to fill the specified length.

When reading or writing data interpreted as char, it will be converted into valid Lil strings, which are unable to represent many ASCII values, so some information will be lost, using the same UTF-8 conversions as read[] applied to a text file. If you need to preserve or generate arbitrary ASCII bytes, or any other string encoding, use the u8 or i8 casts instead!

The struct[] function is designed for progressively building or parsing a binary format. The shape argument is a dictionary from string names to Type Specs:

Type Spec Description
string The name of a cast. 1 element of that type.
(string,number) The name of a cast and a length. N elements of that type as a Lil list or string.
number A bitfield, interpreted as an unsigned number composed of 1 to 31 bits.
dictionary A nested shape. Recursively specify more Type Spec mappings.

If only a shape is provided, struct[] will read each Type Spec entry in shape in turn, starting at an offet in the array given by here, building up a result dictionary containing an identical set of keys and appropriate result values. Sequential bitfields are concatenated together, and any unaccounted bits in the final byte will be 0-padded or skipped when handling the next field. If a second argument is provided, struct[] will instead write data: each key in the shape will look up a corresponding value in x and write it to the array. In either case, here will be incremented by the total size of the shape in bytes, allowing the next read or write to pick up where the previous left off. Manually modifying here can skip to a different section of the array as needed.

As an additional convenience, struct[] will accept a plain string or (string,number) Type Spec as a shape, for reading or writing a single field at a time. Bitfields may not be read or written individually in this manner.

As an example of using struct[], the following decodes the header of a GIF89a image file (src.gif) and, if present, its global colortable:

bin:read["src.gif" "array"]

gif.magic      :"char",6  # "GIF89a" magic number.
gif.size       :"u16l",2  # (width,height) in pixels.
gif.gct.present:1         # flag: is there a global colortable?
gif.gct.res    :3         # color resolution (almost always 7; 8-bits per channel).
gif.gct.sorted :1         # flag: are the colors sorted by importance? (almost always zero).
gif.gct.size   :3         # number of entries in the global colortable.
gif.background :"u8"      # index of the background color.
gif.aspect     :"u8"      # pixel aspect ratio (almost always zero).

header: bin.struct[gif]
colors: bin.struct["u8",header.gct.present*3*2^header.gct.size+1]

The cat[] function can be viewed as a convenience wrapper for struct[] which makes it easier to concatenate together a series of values. Lists are interpreted as lists of numbers, all numbers are interpreted based on the cast of the destination array, strings are always interpreted as a series of char bytes, and appended arrays are interpreted based on their own cast. By the end of the following examples, a, b, and c contain equivalent data:


a:array[0 "u16l"]
a.struct[("char",4) "TEXT"]
a.struct[("u16l",2) 345,9000]
a.struct[(blob.cast,blob.size) blob]

b:array[0 "u16l"]["TEXT"][345,9000][blob]

c:array[0 "u16l"].cat["TEXT" 345,9000 blob]

Image Interface

Images are dynamically created interfaces, each representing a mutable rectangular buffer of pattern indices. The image[] built-in function can be used to make a new image from scratch.

Name Description
typeof x "image"
x.encoded The content of this image encoded as an opaque string, suitable for decoding with image[].
x.hist A dictionary mapping the distinct patterns in this image to how many times they appear.
x.size The size of the image in pixels. Resizing pads with 0 or truncates, as needed. r/w.
x[pos] The pattern index of an (x,y) pixel of the image. Reads 0 out of bounds, ignores out of bounds writes. r/w.[x y] Replace every pixel of the image by indexing the dictionary x, using y as a default if provided.
x.transform[x] Update the image in place according to one of {"horiz","vert","flip","left","right","dither"}.
x.rotate[x] Update the image in place, rotating it clockwise around its centerpoint by x radians.
x.translate[pos w] Update the image in place, translating it by pos (x,y) pixels. If w is truthy, wrap the image at the edges.
x.merge[x...] Consistent with canvas.merge[]: Replace every pixel of the image by compositing together images by index.
x.copy[pos size a] Consistent with canvas.copy[]: grab and return a sub-image at pos/size, respecting anchor a.
x.paste[image pos t] Consistent with canvas.paste[]: composite in another image at pos. If t is truthy, treat pattern 0 as transparent.

The image.hist attribute can be used to efficiently calculate several properties of an image’s palette:

count i.hist                                        # how many patterns appear in this image? in i.hist                                # does this image contain any red pixels?
(list 0)~keys i.hist                                # is this image entirely blank?
3 limit extract key orderby value desc from i.hist  # what are the 3 most common patterns in this image?

The map[] function is useful for re-paletting an image. For example, if we have an image i containing patterns 0 and 1, we could map them to red and green pixels, respectively, as follows:[(0,1) dict (,]

Any other colors will stay the same, unless we provide a second argument with a “default fill”:[(0,1) dict (,]

Some additional examples:[(() dict ()) 0]                           # replace all pixels with 0 (clear the image)[1,0]                                      # replace black with white, and white with black
image[i.size+4].map[()].paste[i 2,2] # add a 2 pixel red border around i

The transform[x] function modifies the entire image in place, depending on x:

Any other value will leave the image unchanged.

The rotate[x] function uses the rotation by shearing method internally, and is therefore pixel-perfect and area-preserving. Repeated small rotations will accumulate distortion, but applying the same sequence of rotations in reverse will restore the original image.

Sound Interface

Sounds are dynamically created interfaces, each representing a mutable buffer of 8-bit signed 8khz monophonic waveform samples. The play[] function can play a sound, and the sound[] function can be used to make a new sound from scratch. The maximum length of a sound is 10 seconds.

Name Description
typeof x "sound"
x.encoded The content of this sound encoded as an opaque string, suitable for decoding with sound[].
x.hist A dictionary mapping the distinct sample values in this sound to how many times they appear.
x.size An integer giving the number of samples in the sound. Resizing pads with 0 or truncates, as needed. r/w.
x.duration A float giving the play time of the sound in seconds.
x[y] The value of sample y. Reads 0 out of bounds, ignores out of bounds writes. r/w.[x y] Replace every sample of the sound by indexing the dictionary x, using y as a default if provided.

The following example creates a new sound and then writes a 1 second long A-4 (440hz) sine wave to it:

each x in range s.size
	s[x]:16*sin (440/8000)*2*pi*x

If a sound is indexed with a pair of numbers (base,length), it will return a list of length samples, starting from the index base:

s[(10,5)]  # (123,118,114,112,112)

Conversely, if a sound is assigned to with such a pair as the index, the region of the sound indicated will be replaced by a list of samples given by the assignment value, expanding or shrinking the gap to suit the length of the replacement value.

s[(10,5)]:()                  # delete 5 samples starting at index 10, reducing the size of the sound by 5
s[(10,5)]:(11,22)             # replace 5 samples starting at index 10 with 2 samples, reducing the size of the sound by 3
s[(10,5)]:(11,22,33,44,55,66) # replace 5 samples starting at index 10 with 6 samples, increasing the size of the sound by 1
s[(10,0)]:(11,22)             # insert 2 samples starting at index 10, increasing the size of the sound by 2

The first example above could be rewritten without a loop as follows, taking advantage of the fact that *, +, and sin can be applied to an entire list at once:

s[(0,0)]:16*sin (440/8000)*2*pi*range 8000

But the simplest way to create such a sound is to pass the list of samples directly to the sound[] function instead of a length:

s:sound[16*sin (440/8000)*2*pi*range 8000]

The sound.hist attribute can be used to efficiently calculate several properties of its samples:

(list 0)~keys s.hist  # is a sound entirely silent?
max keys h            # maximum sample value
min keys h            # minimum sample value

Font Interface

Fonts are dynamically created interfaces, each representing the glyphs of a bitmapped variable-width typeface, for use with canvas.text[]. The font interface has a number of attributes:

Name Description
typeof x "font"
x.size A (width,height) pair giving the maximum size of any character in the font. r/w. An integer giving the character spacing of the font in pixels. r/w.
x[0-95] Access a copy of the glyphs of the font as Image interfaces, by ordinal index. r/w.
x["a"] / x.a Access a copy of the glyphs of the font as Image interfaces, by single-character value. r/w.
x.textsize[x] Obtain a size for the outer dimensions of a string x when drawn in the font.

The glyph images of a font will always have the same height as the font, and represent the true width of the glyph without padding or spacing. Writing images to glyph slots will clip the image to respect the font’s size as a maximum. Font glyphs are strictly monochrome- they may not contain patterns or colors. Accessing an invalid glyph index (or \n) will return an empty image. Writes to invalid glyph indices (or \n) are ignored.

Decker comes with three built-in fonts:

Card Interface

The card interface gives access to the contents of a given card.

Name Description
typeof x "card" String. The name of the card. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the card’s script, or "". r/w.
x.size The size of this card in pixels.
x.image An image interface representing the card’s background. r/w.
x.widgets A dictionary of widget interfaces on this card, keyed by name.
x.index The ordinal position of this card in the deck, counting from 0. r/w.
x.add[x y z] Add a widget to this card, and return it.
x.remove[x] Remove a widget x from this card. Returns 1 on success.
x.copy[list] Save a list of widgets on this card as an opaque string starting with %%WGT0.
x.paste[text] Append the widgets within a %%WGT0 string to this card, returning a list of the new widgets.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this card with argument(s) x.

card.add[x y] can add a new widget to the card. If x is a string {"button", "field", "slider", "canvas", or "grid"}, insert a new widget of the appropriate type using y as a name (or an appropriate default name). If x is the string "contraption", insert a new instance of the prototype with name y using z as a name (or an appropriate default name). If x is a widget interface, insert a copy of it, again using y as a name or an appropriate default.

When a widget is removed from its card, the interface becomes inert: it will ignore all reads and writes of attributes.

Button Interface

The button widget is a clickable button, possibly with a stateful checkbox.

Name Description
typeof x "field" String. The name of this widget. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the widget’s script, or "". r/w.
x.locked Bool. If true, the user cannot modify the value of this checkbox. r/w.
x.animated Bool. If true, this widget will be sent view[] events at 60hz while on the current card. r/w.
x.pos The pos of this widget relative to its container. r/w.
x.offset The pos of this widget in screen coordinates.
x.size The size of the widget in pixels. r/w. Widget compositing mode; one of {"solid", "invert", "transparent", "none"}. r/w.
x.font The font used for drawing this widget. Can be set by font name or a font interface. r/w.
x.index The ordinal position of this widget on the card, counting from 0. r/w.
x.text String. The label shown on this button. r/w.
x.value Bool. Is this checkbox checked? r/w.
x.shortcut String. A keyboard key which can be used as an alternative to pressing this button. r/w. The style of button; one of {"round", "rect", "check", "invisible"}. r/w.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this widget with argument(s) x.
x.toggle[s v] Toggle visibility of this widget between compositing mode "none" and s, iff v.

The toggle[] function alters the property of widgets:

In all cases, the toggle[] function returns the final value of This function makes a number of common scenarios for manipulating simpler and more straightforward.

The button.shortcut attribute may be "" (the default), or it may contain a single lowercase letter, digit, or space. If the keyboard key corresponding to such a character is pressed and released while in Interact mode (with no fields focused), the button will behave as if it were clicked. While it is technically possible to build simple purely keyboard-driven user interfaces in this manner by hiding the buttons, keep in mind that Decks may be used on tablet devices, kiosks, or phones which do not have a physical keyboard; this feature is intended as a supplement to rather than a replacement for ordinary buttons.

Field Interface

The field widget displays and possibly allows the editing of text.

Name Description
typeof x "field" String. The name of this widget. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the widget’s script, or "". r/w.
x.locked Bool. If true, the user cannot edit the text of this field. r/w.
x.animated Bool. If true, this widget will be sent view[] events at 60hz while on the current card. r/w.
x.pos The pos of this widget relative to its container. r/w.
x.offset The pos of this widget in screen coordinates.
x.size The size of the widget in pixels. r/w. Widget compositing mode; one of {"solid", "invert", "transparent", "none"}. r/w.
x.font The font used for drawing this widget. Can be set by font name or a font interface. r/w.
x.index The ordinal position of this widget on the card, counting from 0. r/w.
x.text String. The plain-text content of this field. r/w.
x.value Table. The rtext content of this field. r/w.
x.scroll Int. The number of pixels the viewport of the field is scrolled down. r/w.
x.border Bool. Draw an outline around this widget? r/w.
x.scrollbar Bool. Draw a scrollbar for this widget? r/w. The style of field; one of {"rich", "plain", "code"}. r/w.
x.align The text alignment of the field; one of {"left", "center", "right"}. r/w.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this widget with argument(s) x.
x.toggle[s v] Toggle visibility of this widget between compositing mode "none" and s, iff v. (See Button Interface)

If a field has a style other than rich, any rtext written to the value attribute will be coalesced into a single run of ordinary text with the default font.

See also: rtext.

Slider Interface

The slider widget represents a single number, constrained within a configurable range.

Name Description
typeof x "slider" String. The name of this widget. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the widget’s script, or "". r/w.
x.locked Bool. If true, the user cannot change the value of this slider. r/w.
x.animated Bool. If true, this widget will be sent view[] events at 60hz while on the current card. r/w.
x.pos The pos of this widget relative to its container. r/w.
x.offset The pos of this widget in screen coordinates.
x.size The size of the widget in pixels. r/w. Widget compositing mode; one of {"solid", "invert", "transparent", "none"}. r/w.
x.font The font used for drawing this widget. Can be set by font name or a font interface. r/w.
x.index The ordinal position of this widget on the card, counting from 0. r/w.
x.value Number. The numeric content of this slider. r/w.
x.step Number. The minimum change to the value when manipulating this slider. Must be greater than 0. r/w.
x.interval A list of numbers giving a minimum and maximum for the value, inclusive. r/w.
x.format A format string controlling how the value is shown in "bar" or "compact" styles. r/w. The style of slider; one of {"horiz", "vert", "bar", "compact"}. r/w.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this widget with argument(s) x.
x.toggle[s v] Toggle visibility of this widget between compositing mode "none" and s, iff v. (See Button Interface)

Grid Interface

The grid widget represents an interactive spreadsheet-style view of a table.

Name Description
typeof x "grid" String. The name of this widget. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the widget’s script, or "". r/w.
x.locked Bool. If true, the user cannot select a row of the grid. r/w.
x.animated Bool. If true, this widget will be sent view[] events at 60hz while on the current card. r/w.
x.pos The pos of this widget relative to its container. r/w.
x.offset The pos of this widget in screen coordinates.
x.size The size of the widget in pixels. r/w. Widget compositing mode; one of {"solid", "invert", "transparent", "none"}. r/w.
x.font The font used for drawing this widget. Can be set by font name or a font interface. r/w.
x.index The ordinal position of this widget on the card, counting from 0. r/w.
x.value The table displayed in this grid. r/w.
x.headers Bool. Display table header row? r/w.
x.scrollbar Bool. Draw a scrollbar for this widget? r/w.
x.lines Bool. Draw grid lines for this widget? r/w.
x.widths A list of up to 255 widths of table columns, in pixels. r/w.
x.scroll Int. The first row of the table to display. r/w.
x.row Int. The index of the selected row of the table, or -1 for no selection. r/w.
x.rowvalue Dict. The selected row of the table, or an empty dictionary for no selection.
x.format String. A column spec for formatting columns of the table. See writecsv[]. r/w.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this widget with argument(s) x.
x.toggle[s v] Toggle visibility of this widget between compositing mode "none" and s, iff v. (See Button Interface)

Canvas Interface

The canvas widget represents a mutable drawing surface.

Like all other widgets, the size attribute of a canvas indicates the space it takes up on a card. Canvases also have an lsize (logical size): the number of pixels stored internally for drawing. If scale is 1.0 (the default), the size and lsize are the same. Otherwise, the logical size of the canvas will be the size of the widget divided by the scale, rounding up to the nearest pixel. Modifying scale or size updates lsize, and modifying lsize will change size, respecting scale.

The canvas will scale up logical pixels to display them on the card (resulting in a larger image), and the positions supplied by events (click, drag, and release) sent to the canvas will be scaled down, mapping them to the logical size. The main purpose of scale is to make it easy to show a zoomed-in canvas that a user can interact with and draw on directly.

Name Description
typeof x "canvas"
x[pos] The pattern index of an (x,y) pixel of the canvas. Reads 0 out of bounds, ignores out of bounds writes. r/w. String. The name of this widget. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the widget’s script, or "". r/w.
x.locked Bool. If false, the user can draw on this canvas in the current brush and pattern. r/w.
x.animated Bool. If true, this widget will be sent view[] events at 60hz while on the current card. r/w.
x.pos The pos of this widget relative to its container. r/w.
x.offset The pos of this widget in screen coordinates. Widget compositing mode; one of {"solid", "invert", "transparent", "none"}. r/w.
x.border Bool. Draw an outline around this widget? r/w.
x.draggable Bool. Allow the user to reposition this widget by dragging it in interact mode? r/w.
x.size The size of the canvas widget in pixels. r/w.
x.lsize the logical size (before scaling) of the canvas in pixels. r/w.
x.scale The scaling factor of the canvas. r/w.
x.brush The current brush index, used by canvas.line[] and[]. Write accepts the name of a custom brush.
x.pattern The current drawing pattern, used by all drawing operations. r/w.
x.font The current drawing font. Can be set by font name or a font interface. r/w.
x.index The ordinal position of this widget on the card, counting from 0. r/w.
x.clip[pos size a] Restrict drawing to within the rectangle given by pos/size. If no args provided, unclip.
x.clear[pos size a] Erase a rectangle given by pos/size using pattern 0. if no args provided, clear the whole canvas.
x.rect[pos size a] Fill a rectangle given by pos/size with the drawing pattern.
x.invert[pos size a] Invert the white and non-white pixels within the rectangle given by pos/size.[pos size a] Draw a a rectangular outline given by pos/size with the current pattern and brush.
x.fill[pos] Flood-fill using the drawing pattern starting from pos.
x.line[x...] Draw a line connecting two or more points. If only a single point is given, draw a single instance of the brush.
x.poly[x...] Draw a filled polygon.
x.merge[x...] Composite images by index based on the contents of the canvas.
x.text[x pos a] Draw a string or rtext x at pos, from an anchor position a.
x.textsize[x w] Obtain a size for the outer dimensions of a string or rtext x, optionally wrapped to width w.
x.copy[pos size a] Grab an image at pos/size.
x.paste[image pos t] Draw an image at pos. If t is truthy, treat pattern 0 as transparent.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this widget with argument(s) x.
x.toggle[s v] Toggle visibility of this widget between compositing mode "none" and s, iff v. (See Button Interface)

The canvas.line[] and canvas.poly[] functions can take any number of arguments, which may (x,y) points, or lists of (x,y) points. For example, either of the following would draw an identical small triangle:

c.poly[(7,-3) (1,6) (10,9)]
c.poly[(list 7,-3),(list 1,6),(list 10,9)]

The canvas.merge[] function takes any number of images (or one list of images) as arguments and updates every pixel on the canvas (respecting canvas.clip[]) by treating the pattern at that pixel as an index into the set of provided images. Pattern indices in the original canvas with no corresponding image are set to 0. If any of the provided images are smaller than the canvas, they are tiled horizontally and vertically as needed. For example, given the four canvases shown below, the mask drawn in before using patterns 0 and 1 is used to merge together the images in a and b:

after.merge[a.copy[] b.copy[]]

If the first argument to canvas.merge[] is a single-character string consisting of one of Lil’s primitive arithmetic or logical operatiors (+ - & | < > =), it will apply that operator between the pixel on the canvas and the corresponding pixel from the second argument image (truncating or repeating it to match) and update the canvas in-place. This permits many interesting types of blending:

after.merge["+" b.copy[]]

If the pos argument to canvas.text[] is a list of four coordinates instead of two, it is interpreted as the dimensions (x,y,width,height) of a rectangle. In this case, the string x will be automatically wrapped (preferring line breaks at whitespace) to fit in this rectangle, with overflow elided with a trailing ellipsis. If provided, the anchor a will control the alignment of the text within this rectangle. If x is an rtext table and pos is not a rectangle, the anchor a is ignored, text is drawn top-left aligned, and lines are not automatically wrapped.

If the pos argument to canvas.paste[] is a list of four coordinates instead of two, it is interpreted as the dimensions (x,y,width,height) of a rectangle. In this case, the image will be drawn scaled to fit that rectangle, using nearest-neighbor sampling. For example, to draw an image i in the top-left corner of the canvas at 2x scale:

c.paste[i (0,0),2*i.size]

Contraption Interface

Contraptions are custom widgets, defined in a Prototype. See the Custom Widgets section for more detail.

Name Description
typeof x "contraption" String. The name of this widget. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the widget’s script, or "". r/w.
x.image An image interface representing the contraption’s background, inherited from its Prototype.
x.locked Bool. Behavior of this property is entirely up to the Prototype. r/w.
x.animated Bool. If true, this widget will be sent view[] events at 60hz while on the current card. r/w.
x.pos The pos of this widget relative to its container. r/w.
x.offset The pos of this widget in screen coordinates.
x.size The size of the widget in pixels. r/w. Widget compositing mode; one of {"solid", "invert", "transparent", "none"}. r/w.
x.font The font used for drawing this widget. Can be set by font name or a font interface. r/w.
x.index The ordinal position of this widget on the card, counting from 0. r/w.
x.def The Prototype of this contraption.
x.event[n x...] Issue an event named n at this widget with argument(s) x.
x.toggle[s v] Toggle visibility of this widget between compositing mode "none" and s, iff v. (See Button Interface)

Contraption interfaces may expose additional attributes. Reads or writes to properties aside from those listed above (such as .zami) will invoke the script of the Prototype corresponding to this Contraption, calling either a function get_zami on a read, or set_zami (with a value) on a write. Inside an attribute handler both me and card are bound to the target Contraption instance, for consistency with event handlers.

Module Interface

Modules are chunks of reusable Lil code. See the modules section for more detail.

Name Description
typeof x "module" String. The name of this module. r/w. A keystore interface containing supplemental storage for this module. (See below.)
x.description String. A human-readable description of the purpose of this module. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the module’s script. r/w.
x.value Dictionary. The contents of the module as returned by the final expression in the script.
x.error String. If there was a problem initializing this module, a description of the problem. Otherwise, "".

Whenever a module’s script attribute is modified (or when a module is instantiated by loading a deck or copying it from another deck), the script is executed. Module scripts have access to all of Decker’s usual constants and built-in functions, as well as a reference (named data) to the module’s keystore, but do not have access to the deck interface unless it is provided to the module explicitly via function arguments.

If the script executes successfully, the final expression’s value is cast to a dictionary and exposed as the module’s value attribute. If anything goes wrong, an error message is exposed as the module’s error attribute.

Module scripts are given a small amount of time to execute; if this limit is exceeded, Decker will assume the script is malformed and halt it, indicating the failure with an error message: “initialization took too long.”

KeyStore Interface

Modules each have a keystore, which behaves much like a mutable dictionary of supplementary data. The contents of the keystore is serialized along with the module whenever a deck is saved or a module is copied.

Name Description
typeof x "keystore"
x.keys List of strings. Every key in this store with an associated value. Read-only.
x[key] Get the data associated with a string key.
x[key]:y Set data associated with a string key to y.

A keystore is subject to several constraints:

Prototype Interface

Prototypes are definitions from which Contraptions are made. See the Custom Widgets section for more detail. Note that the structure of a Prototype is very similar to a Card.

Name Description
typeof x "prototype" String. The name of the Prototype. r/w.
x.description String. A human-readable description of the purpose of this Prototype. r/w.
x.script String. The Lil source code of the Prototype’s script, or "". r/w.
x.template String. The Lil source code that can be used as a default for newly-created Prototype instances. r/w.
x.size The size of this Prototype in pixels. r/w.
x.image An image interface representing the Prototype’s background. r/w.
x.resizable Bool. Can instances of this Prototype be resized? r/w.
x.margin A list of 4 integers. See below for details. r/w.
x.widgets A dictionary of widget interfaces in this Prototype, keyed by name.
x.attributes A table of editable attributes exposed by this Prototype (see below). r/w.
x.add[x y] Add a widget to this Prototype, and return it.
x.remove[x] Remove a widget x from this Prototype. Returns 1 on success.
x.update[] Refresh any applicable Contraption instances in the current deck.

prototype.add[x y] can add a new widget to the Prototype. If x is a string {"button", "field", "slider", "canvas", or "grid"}, insert a new widget of the appropriate type using y as a name (or an appropriate default name). If x is a widget interface, insert a copy of it, again using y as a name or an appropriate default.

When a widget is removed from its Prototype, the interface becomes inert: it will ignore all reads and writes of attributes.

If a prototype is not resizable, contraptions will strictly inherit their size from the prototype. Otherwise, when the size of a contraption is modified, all the internal widgets will reflow based on the configuration of margin. The margin specifies four offsets inward from the left, top, right, and bottom edge of the prototype’s bounding box, respectively. As a contraption is resized, corners of any widget which fall within a margin will retain their distance from the corresponding edge of the bounding box, and any other corners will be repositioned proportionally based on their original positions in the prototype. With appropriate margins, it is possible to achieve a wide variety of useful automatic layouts. Fully-collapsed (0) margins leave reflowing strictly on a proportional basis. The sum of the margins defines the minimum size of a contraption.

In addition to controlling the position and size of widgets, margin controls how the background image of contraptions is rendered, by logically dividing it into 9 regions. As a contraption is resized, the four corners retain their original size. The left and right center regions are repeated vertically, the top and bottom center regions are repeated horizontally, and the centermost region is repeated horizontally and vertically.

The attributes table provides information about the attributes of contraption instances based on this Prototype which should be editable by users. It contains a name column with (string) attribute names, a label column with (string) display names for attributes, and a type column indicating the editor that should be provided for that attribute:

Attribute Type Description Editor
"bool" A boolean (0/1) value Checkbox.
"number" A Lil number Field.
"string" A Lil string Field.
"code" A Lil string Large field in “code” editing mode.
"rich" An rtext table Large field in “rich” editing mode.

Modifying the attributes of a Prototype will automatically update Contraption instances in the current deck. Modifying the attributes of widgets contained in this Prototype will require explicitly calling prototype.update[]. In either case, when a definition is updated, the name, pos, show, locked, animated, font, and script attributes of Contraptions will be preserved, as well the value, scroll, row and image attributes of the widgets they contain (as applicable) if they have been modified from their original values in the prototype, but everything else will be regenerated from the definition. The state of contraptions is kept, and the behavior and appearance is changed.


When processing an event, Decker first executes scripts (if present) for all of the ancestors of the event target. The deck is always first. If the target is a widget, its script is executed after the card which contains it. If any scripts are malformed and do not parse correctly (as could be verified with sys.eval[]), they will be ignored. Each successive script runs in a nested environment chained to the previous, such that send may be used to access any definitions made in ancestor scripts which are shadowed by the current script.

When the deck script executes, the following constants will be defined:

When a card or widget script executes, the following constants will be defined in addition to the above:

Finally, Decker will find the most recent function definition which matches the event name and execute it with an appropriate argument. Thus, if a button’s script does not define a click[] function, Decker will effectively look for a definition in the containing card, and then finally the deck. If no definition is found, the event will be discarded harmlessly.

For widgets within a contraption, card will be the contraption. While editing/previewing a Prototype, card will be the prototype.

Events are as follows:

Target Name Argument When
button click None. The user clicks the button or activates its shortcut.
grid click Row number. The user selects a row in the grid.
grid order Column name as a string. The user clicks a header cell on the grid.
grid change grid.value (table). The user alters the data in the the grid.
canvas click pos on the canvas. The user depresses their pointing device on a canvas.
canvas drag pos on the canvas. The user moves their pointing device while held on a canvas.
canvas release pos on the canvas. The user releases their pointing device on a canvas.
field link Link contents (string). The user clicks a link in rich text.
field run Selection or field.text (string). The user presses shift+return with the field active.
field change field.text (string). The user alters the field, debounced to 1 second.
slider change slider.value (number). The user alters the slider, debounced to 1 frame.
card navigate One of {"up","down","left","right"}. The user performs a navigation input.
card view None. The card is navigated to, or the user enters interaction mode.
contraption view None. The surrounding card is sent a view event (see above).
widget view None. The surrounding card is active, repeatedly at 60hz.
card loop Previous sound interface or 0. The card is navigated to, or the background loop completes.

If a canvas is not “draggable”, events are relative to pointer movement on the canvas: The canvas will fire click only if the pointer is depressed within the bounds of the canvas. If a canvas is sent a click, it will receive a release when the pointer is released, even if the pointer is no longer over that canvas- the pos provided may be out of bounds. If a canvas is sent a click, it will be sent drag events every time the pointer is moved within the bounds of the canvas up until the release.

If a canvas is “draggable”, tapping on the canvas will fire click, moving it will continuously fire drag, and releasing it will fire release. In all three cases, the provided pos will be the original position of the canvas, before the drag operation began. Having this position makes it easy for a draggable canvas to “snap back” to its original position at the end of a drag, or make decisions based on where it came from. Since dragging and dropping often involves checking whether widgets overlap, the following routines may be handy:

on overlaps a b do min(a.pos<b.pos+b.size),b.pos<a.pos+a.size   end    # widget a overlaps widget b
on inside   a b do min(a.pos>b.pos),(a.pos+a.size)<b.pos+b.size end    # widget a is fully inside widget b

The navigate event will fire when the user presses cursor keys on the keyboard without a field selected or performs a navigation gesture.

The loop event handler is fired when the user initially visits a card or when a background audio loop stops. If it returns a sound interface or the name of a sound in the deck, that sound will become the next background loop. In this manner, you can sequence sound clips together to form continuous background sound. The loop event handler must complete its work quickly (much like a transition function) or it and the background loop will be halted.

Decker will supply the following “default” event handlers so that links, navigation, grid interaction, and drawing on canvases will have useful behaviors out of the box. These defaults can be overridden (or wrapped) by definitions in scripts on the deck, card, or relevant widget:

on link x do

on navigate x do
	if x~"right" go["Next"] end
	if x~"left"  go["Prev"] end

on drag pos do
	if !me.locked|me.draggable
		me.line[(pointer.prev-me.pos+me.container.pos)/me.scale pos]

on order col do
	if !me.locked
		me.value:select orderby me.value[col] asc from me.value

on loop prev do

While a script is executing (or performing a sleep[]), no additional events can be fired until it completes. The pointer interface will, however, continue to update to reflect the current state of the pointing device.

Widgets, Cards, and the Deck itself all expose a function called event[name args...], which can be used to issue synthetic events at that target. The name may be the name of an existing event or any function in that target’s script. When calling an event handler via event[] it will have all of the normal “magic” constants available as when called by Decker itself.


Modules offer a way to re-use Lil scripts between decks. If someone else has packaged code as a module, using it in your own decks is as simple as using the Font/Deck Accessory Mover to copy it over. The module will then be available as a deck-level global variable- a dictionary, probably containing functions- that you can call from the Listener or your own scripts.

If you’re an advanced user, you might want to make your own modules. Make a new deck, create an empty module from the Listener:

deck.add["module" "logger"]

Save the deck, open it in your favorite text editor, and modify the {module:logger} section like so:

description:"a utility module for logging"


log:table data.log

mod.put:on _ x do
	into log
	data.log: cols log

mod.get:on _ do

The {module:logger} line indicates the beginning of a module named logger. The description:"..." is what the Font/DA mover displays as a preview for the module. The (optional) {data} section contains supplementary user-defined key-value pairs that can be accessed and modified by the module. Everything between {script} and {end} is the source code for the module itself. (Curly braces and some forward slashes need to be escaped- see the Decker file format for details!)

In this module, the variable log is initialized with a table drawn from the module’s keystore, and an (implicit) dictionary named mod is created, containing a pair of functions which manipulate log. Since the last line of the script is an assignment to mod, the return value of the script is the mod dictionary.

The script in a module is only executed once, when a deck is loaded. For large scripts, this can be much more efficient than defining functions in deck.script, which have to be processed again every time an event occurs. Since the put and get functions retain their closure, they both have access to the shared log variable, even after being packed together into a dictionary. As demonstrated in this example, modules can be stateful, unlike ordinary scripts. It’s important to note, however, that this state can be fragile: unless it is stashed with data.key:... it will not be automatically preserved if the deck is saved and reopened later!

It’s a great idea to provide documentation and examples for your new module in the deck it’s packaged within. You might also want to perform automated tests of your module while developing it. That’s where the “Lilt” command-line utility comes in. Using Lilt, you can read and write decks “headlessly”, and interact with them as if you were using Decker’s listener:

% lilt
{"put":on _ x do ... end,"get":on _ do ... end}
| time | message |
| 0    | "first" |
| time | message  |
| 0    | "first"  |
| 1    | "second" |

Custom Widgets

Let’s walk through the process of defining a new contraption. If you aren’t comfortable with programming, don’t be intimidated! While Lil scripting is important for taking full advantage of contraptions, it is important to note that you can still make useful contraptions without writing any code.

Our First Prototype

The File → Prototypes… menu will open a dialog listing the contraption prototypes available in your deck. Click “New…” to create a new prototype. You will see the blank prototype centered in your screen, and a new “Prototype” menu.

First, let’s give our prototype a name and description, so that it’s easy to find in the future. Click the Prototype → Properties… menu item. Our goal is to make a counter with a field containing a number and a button which increments it. Update the “Name” and “Description” fields. We’ll talk about “Template Script” later.

Next, let’s set a size for our prototype. Choose the Widgets tool and drag the handle at the bottom-right corner of the prototype until you’re satisfied with the size. (Note: if you have a specific pixel size in mind, you can also directly set the prototype size via the Listener- for example, me.size:100,50.)

Now we can add widgets to our prototype, in exactly the same way we’d add them to a card. Create a Field named val and a button named inc:

The inc button will need a short script:

on click do

If you switch to “Interact” mode, you can try out the prototype immediately: clicking the button should increment the value in the field. When you’re satisfied, be sure to set the field back to be blank or “0”: the values in the widgets of a prototype will be the defaults for every contraption instance we make later!

Backgrounds and Resizability

Let’s give our prototype a bit of decoration by drawing a border using the “Box” tool. You can draw on the background of a prototype just like a card.

By default, contraption instances have a fixed size, matching the prototype. If you make your contraption “Resizable” (Prototype → Resizable), every contraption instance can be resized with the “Widgets” tool. Enable this property, check Prototype → Show Margins, and then ensure that you’re using the Widgets tool. You should now see four draggable handles on the top and left edge of the prototype.

When a contraption is resized, the background is logically divided into 9 pieces based on the margins. The corners are kept their original size, the top and bottom edge are repeated horizontally, the left and right edge are repeated vertically, and the center is repeated horizontally and vertically. Another way to think of it is that the part of the prototype between the margins for each axis will be stretched out, while the rest is kept the same size. Widgets behave similarly: any widget corners that fall outside of the margins will keep a fixed position relative to the edges of the prototype, while the rest will be scaled proportionally.

A real example may be clearer. Set the margins of your prototype like so:

Now let’s make a few contraptions from our prototype! You can use the Prototype → Close menu item or press “escape” on the keyboard to leave the prototype editor. Back on a normal card, switch to the “Widgets” tool and click the Widgets → New Contraption… menu item. Choose your “counter” contraption and click “Create”. Make a few counters, and play with resizing them. Observe how our border adapts to each size. You might find it useful to design contraptions that are purely reusable, resizable decorative borders!

You can copy and paste contraptions like any other widget. In fact, if you copy a contraption to the clipboard, you can paste it into another deck and it will bring along the prototype definition!

Custom Attributes

So far, we’ve defined a useful, if simple, contraption with minimal code. We could stop here, but there are a few more details we could add that would make our contraptions behave more like the built-in widget flavors. Hop back into the prototype editor via File → Prototypes… or by double-clicking on a contraption instance and clicking “Prototype…” in its Properties dialog.

Field widgets have a .text and .value attribute; we used the former in the script we wrote previously. To expose an attribute like this on our counter, we’ll add code to our prototype’s script. Choose Prototype → Script from the menu and enter the following:

on get_value do

on set_value x do

Say we have a counter contraption named count1. When code outside our contraption refers to count1.value, the function get_value is called in the prototype script. Conversely, when code outside our contraption does count1.value:5, the function set_value is called in the prototype script with the argument 5.

Our get_value uses +0 to force the string value of the interior field val to a number, and our set_value writes a number x to the same field. Just like within a card, the widgets of a contraption store the state of the contraption, and any get_ and set_ functions we write translate external arguments and requests into manipulations of internal widgets. From the inside, a contraption acts like a little card, and from the outside it appears like a widget.

If you want to expose an immutable attribute, don’t define a set_ corresponding to your get_. For example, you might want to expose a utility function that external scripts can call:

on reset do       # a normal function, callable from inside the prototype

on get_reset do   # an accessor that returns the internal function to outside users
 reset            # note that we're returning the function, not calling it (reset[])!

Some of our custom attributes might be things that users of the contraption would like to be able to adjust without writing scripts. When you’re done configuring the prototype script, close the script editor and choose Prototype → Attributes… from the menu.

From this dialog you can add metadata for any of the attributes you wrote get_ and set_ functions for. The “name” of an attribute should be the part that comes immediately after get_; in our case, “value”. The “label” can be a longer/more detailed human-readable name. The “type” indicates which sort of picker should be provided for manipulating this attribute: a boolean becomes a checkbox, a number or string become small field, and code or rich text becomes a larger field of the appropriate style.

With the “value” attribute set up as above, exit the prototype editor and double-click one of your contraption instances to see the new field in its Properties panel:

Try making a change here, and watch it be reflected on the contraption when you close the dialog!

Custom Events

It is also possible to make your contraptions produce events, just as a button widget produces a click event when it is clicked, or a field widget produces a change event when its contents is edited.

From the perspective of prototype scripts or the scripts on widgets within a prototype, the global variable card is a reference to the contraption instance rather than the card containing the contraption. To send an event to a user script on the contraption instance, we will use card.event[]. Modify the script on the inc button as follows:

on click do
 card.event["change" get_value[]]

Now every time inc is clicked, it will send a change[] event to the contraption instance. If a user has not defined a handler for this event, it will do nothing harmlessly, just like a button that doesn’t define on click... in its script.

To help users know that a “change” event is available, we can provide a default “template” script for newly-created contraptions. Edit the template for your prototype via the Prototype → Properties… menu item:

on change x do

Exit the prototype editor, and modify the script of one of your contraption instances. The script editor should provide your template as a starting point. Try filling it in and then interacting with the contraption to confirm the event fires:

on change x do
 alert["counter is now %i" format x]

When designing custom event and custom attribute logic, try to follow the examples and conventions of Decker’s built-in widgets when it makes sense. Having consistency makes your widget’s behavior easier to understand and remember!


Contraptions and prototypes have a few important limitations to keep in mind:


Let’s say we’re on a card containing a canvas named canvas. The card also has a script which defines a function named pinwheel[] for clearing the canvas and drawing a shape on it, with the shape’s size and rotation controlled by a parameter t (time):

on pinwheel t do
  c:canvas.size/2                   # center of canvas
  r:c[0]*.6+.4*sin 0.05*t           # radius of the pattern
  a:(0.01*t)+(pi/0.5*16)*range 16   # angle per wedge
  p:flip c+flip r*unit a            # points around a circle
  each x i in p
    if 2%i canvas.tri[c x p[(count p)%1+i]] end    # draw every other wedge

By calling this function repeatedly and varying the time, it will create a series of different images which produce the illusion of motion, like a flipbook.

Try making a button with a script like the following and clicking it. (Warning: if you are photosensitive, this example might be very uncomfortable to look at; maybe just skip ahead to the next one?)

on click
  while 1

The first thing you’ll notice is that once you click the button, it turns inactive, and most of Decker’s menus disappear. The while loop in this script will run forever until you manually halt it with Script → Stop.

You’ll also notice that the animation looks strange- parts of the pinwheel seem to flicker and appear or disappear randomly. We’re actually drawing and erasing the shape much too fast!

Decker allows Lil scripts to run for a certain amount of time each frame, before pausing them briefly to handle redrawing the window and servicing menus. From the script’s perspective, it is being paused at arbitrary points inside that while loop, so the shape may not be fully-drawn when it’s shown to the user. Instead, we should use the sleep[] function to tell our script to wait until it’s time to draw the next frame- this will look much smoother:

on click
  while 1

This approach to animation can be very convenient and flexible- just write ordinary code with loops and conditionals and insert a few sleep[] calls whenever you finish drawing a frame. The disadvantage, though, is that while our animation script is running, everything else in Decker grinds to a halt. The user can’t click on buttons, edit fields, or even navigate to another card! Our single escape-hatch is the pointer interface, which gives us live-updating information about the mouse (or whatever pointing device is available) even while our script is running.

As a simple example, we could stop our while loop when the user clicks the mouse anywhere:

on click
  while !pointer.held

But there’s another way: harnessing the view event. The view event is fired once whenever a user is shown a card, usually as a result of opening a deck or navigating to a card. The go[] command will also schedule this behavior, even if we’re asking to “navigate” to the card we’re already on:

on view do

Since each event is an independent script execution, we can’t count frames in a local variable like we did before, but we can use sys.frame (or, for that matter) to get a regularly incrementing timer. If we need control over exactly when our animation starts and finishes, we could stash our own frame counter in an invisible field widget.

The view event is fired at most once per frame, so we don’t need any explicit sleep[] calls, and as long as our script finishes quickly enough, the user will have a chance to interact with widgets and trigger other events between scheduled view events. Our animation automatically starts playing when we navigate to the card, and the view[] event will stop being triggered if we navigate away to a different card. Note that if a script takes too long, you will see the same behavior as the original while loop: the user will be unable to interact with the card until the script is stopped.

The go[] is the essential component here, since it indirectly triggers a future view[]. If we just called the view[] function directly,

on view do
  view[]                     # bad idea!

it would be equivalent to the first example!

The go[card] method of animation is convenient, but it still requires us to write a card-level script. Furthermore, this method cannot be used from within a contraption, as contraption prototype scripts do not have access to the deck or the current card. There’s one more option: the animated property. Any widget can be flagged as animated from the Widgets menu. Animated widgets are automatically sent a view event on every frame so long as the card they appear on is visible. If we make our canvas “animated”, it will only need the following script:

on view do

The animated property allows you to make widgets self-updating in an entirely self-contained way: their behavior can be fully contained in their own scripts, allowing them to be copied and pasted between cards or decks without requiring any additional “plumbing”.

You can use animated anywhere you want a “live updating” widget. Consider, for example, a field that continuously recomputes its value from other widgets:

on view do
 me.text: price.text*(1+taxes.text)

This approach “pulls” values from other fields, whereas you might otherwise “push” values from fields when they’re edited, using their change event. As always, build your applications in the way that makes the most sense to you!


Whenever a user or script navigates to a new card with go[], Decker can perform a brief transition animation, like a horizontal slide or wipe. Transitions add visual flair and aid users in finding their way around a deck by providing spatial relationship cues. Decker comes with a number of pre-defined transitions, and you can add more (or override existing ones) by writing appropriate Lil functions and installing them by calling the transition[] function, or by providing a function directly as the second argument to go[].

The Lil function you install as a transition will be called several times when an animation is required, with four arguments:

On each call, your function should use the resources provided to draw an image on the canvas, which will be automatically clear[]ed between frames. Transition functions must complete their work quickly: if they exceed a brief quota, they will be halted prematurely, and whatever is on the canvas will be used as-is. Transition functions must smoothly handle any number of intervening tween values, but are guaranteed to be called with a tween of exactly 0 and 1 on the first and last frames, respectively.

Decker supplies the following pre-defined transitions:

transition[on SlideRight c a b t do  c.paste[a c.size*t,0   ] c.paste[b c.size*(t-1),0]      end]
transition[on SlideLeft  c a b t do  c.paste[a c.size*(-t),0] c.paste[b c.size*(1-t),0]      end]
transition[on SlideDown  c a b t do  c.paste[a c.size*0,t   ] c.paste[b c.size*0,t-1  ]      end]
transition[on SlideUp    c a b t do  c.paste[a c.size*0,-t  ] c.paste[b c.size*0,1-t  ]      end]
transition[on WipeRight  c a b t do  c.rect[0,0        c.size*t,1    ]          c.merge[a b] end]
transition[on WipeLeft   c a b t do  c.rect[0,0        c.size*(1-t),1]          c.merge[b a] end]
transition[on WipeDown   c a b t do  c.rect[0,0        c.size*1,t    ]          c.merge[a b] end]
transition[on WipeUp     c a b t do  c.rect[0,0        c.size*1,1-t  ]          c.merge[b a] end]
transition[on BoxIn      c a b t do  c.rect[c.size/2   c.size*t   "center"]     c.merge[a b] end]
transition[on BoxOut     c a b t do  c.rect[c.size/2   c.size*1-t "center"]     c.merge[b a] end]

Transitions can be defined in any script, at any time, but it usually makes the most sense to set them up at the top level of a deck script or a module. If custom transitions are bundled into a module, it is very easy for other users to re-use them in their own decks!


Both Decker’s drawing tools and Canvas widgets support drawing lines (and shapes composed of lines, like polygons or boxes) using a “brush”. The following brush shapes are built in:

It is also possible to install new brushes using the brush[] function. This can be called in three ways:

Static brushes work like the built-in brushes: as a line is drawn, the mask is continuously “stamped” along it. Functional brushes call the supplied function repeatedly, and each time it should return a mask image. Functional brushes must complete their work very quickly: if they exceed a brief quota, they will be halted prematurely, and nothing will be drawn. Likewise, if the function returns anything that is not an image, nothing will be drawn at that step. A brush function is called with two arguments:

An example static brush:

brush["Oval" image["%%IMG0AAwADAHgB/AP8B/wP/B/4H/g/8D/gP8A/gB8AA=="]]

Remember that you can obtain the encoded strings used by image[] by drawing something in Decker and copying it to the clipboard!

An example functional brush, a round brush which gets smaller for faster strokes:

# 11 round brush images ranging from 8px to 1px:

b:image @ "\n" split 1 drop "

# pre-computing the above table outside the function avoids
# unnecessary work every time Velocity[] is called!

brush[on Sumi delta do
	b[10 & .5 * mag delta]

Like transition functions, brushes can be defined in any script, at any time, but it usually makes the most sense to set them up at the top level of a deck script or a module.

Playing Sound

The play[] function is the main way of triggering audio playback in Decker. It can be called with a Sound Interface or the name of a sound in the deck:


There are two ways to wait for a sound to finish. The sleep["play"] function blocks execution until no sounds are playing, which may take many frames:


The app.playing property is truthy if sound is playing. You can use this as a “non-blocking” way to wait for sounds to stop:

while app.playing

So far, we’ve looked at “one-shot” sound effects. You can have several such sounds playing at one time. If you provide a second argument to play[], you can instead control the “background loop”, a single sound that can be easily repeated:

play["amen" "loop"]

By default, the background loop will repeat until it is explicitly stopped or replaced with another sound. If you repeatedly “loop-play” the same sound, it will not restart the sound- this is convenient for common applications. If you do wish to reset a looping sound mid-loop, you can stop it and then immediately restart it. To stop the background loop, provide an invalid sound to play[]:

play[0 "loop"]

It is also possible to control the background loop by providing a handler for the card-level loop event. This handler is called whenever cards are initially visited (as by go[], for example) as well as each time the background loop completes. The loop handler is passed the previous background loop sound, if any, and the return value will become the new background loop. You can probably see now why the default loop handler is:

on loop prev do

The simplest way to use this event is to give cards a default background loop when you visit them:

on loop do

Or to silence any existing background loop when you visit the card:

on loop do

But you might want to have other side effects, or choose the next background loop sound based on some algorithm:

on loop do

The loop event handler must complete quickly; if it exceeds a small quota, it will be halted along with the background loop.


If you start Native-Decker from the commandline, you can specify a path to a deck to open:

% ./decker examples/decks/fontedit.deck

Native-Decker accepts several other optional CLI flags:

If a file path is not specified (or you open Decker by double-clicking the application), Decker will next check for the existence of a file named start.deck in the same directory as the executable (or on MacOS within the .app/Resources/ directory of the application bundle), opening it if available. This can be helpful if you wish to build a personal “home deck”, or if you wish to distribute your own decks along with a Decker runtime.

If neither an explicit file path nor a start.deck is available, Decker will open the built-in “guided tour” deck.

See Also